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 Abundance trends in kinematical groups of the Milky Way's diskWe have compiled a large catalogue of metallicities and abundance ratiosfrom the literature in order to investigate abundance trends of severalalpha and iron peak elements in the thin disk and the thick disk of theGalaxy. The catalogue includes 743 stars with abundances of Fe, O, Mg,Ca, Ti, Si, Na, Ni and Al in the metallicity range -1.30 < [Fe/H]< +0.50. We have checked that systematic differences betweenabundances measured in the different studies were lower than randomerrors before combining them. Accurate distances and proper motions fromHipparcos and radial velocities from several sources have been retreivedfor 639 stars and their velocities (U, V, W) and galactic orbits havebeen computed. Ages of 322 stars have been estimated with a Bayesianmethod of isochrone fitting. Two samples kinematically representative ofthe thin and thick disks have been selected, taking into account theHercules stream which is intermediate in kinematics, but with a probabledynamical origin. Our results show that the two disks are chemicallywell separated, they overlap greatly in metallicity and both showparallel decreasing alpha elements with increasing metallicity, in theinterval -0.80 < [Fe/H] < -0.30. The Mg enhancement with respectto Fe of the thick disk is measured to be 0.14 dex. An even largerenhancement is observed for Al. The thick disk is clearly older than thethin disk with tentative evidence of an AMR over 2-3 Gyr and a hiatus instar formation before the formation of the thin disk. We do not observea vertical gradient in the metallicity of the thick disk. The Herculesstream has properties similar to that of the thin disk, with a widerrange of metallicity. Metal-rich stars assigned to the thick disk andsuper-metal-rich stars assigned to the thin disk appear as outliers inall their properties. Lithium abundances of the local thin disc starsLithium abundances are presented for a sample of 181 nearby F and Gdwarfs with accurate Hipparcos parallaxes. The stars are on circularorbits about the Galactic centre and, hence, are identified as belongingto the thin disc. This sample is combined with two published surveys toprovide a catalogue of lithium abundances, metallicities ([Fe/H]),masses, and ages for 451 F-G dwarfs, almost all belonging to the thindisc. The lithium abundances are compared and contrasted with publishedlithium abundances for F and G stars in local open clusters. The fieldstars span a larger range in [Fe/H] than the clusters for which [Fe/H]~=0.0 +/- 0.2. The initial (i.e. interstellar) lithium abundance of thesolar neighbourhood, as derived from stars for which astration oflithium is believed to be unimportant, is traced from logɛ(Li) =2.2 at [Fe/H]=-1 to logɛ(Li) = 3.2 at +0.1. This form for theevolution is dependent on the assumption that astration of lithium isnegligible for the stars defining the relation. An argument is advancedthat this latter assumption may not be entirely correct, and, theevolution of lithium with [Fe/H] may be flatter than previouslysupposed. A sharp Hyades-like Li dip is not seen among the field starsand appears to be replaced by a large spread among lithium abundances ofstars more massive than the lower mass limit of the dip. Astration oflithium by stars of masses too low to participate in the Li dip isdiscussed. These stars show little to no spread in lithium abundance ata given [Fe/H] and mass. A near-infrared stellar spectral library: I. H-band spectra.This paper presents the H band near-infrared (NIR) spectral library of135 solar type stars covering spectral types O5-M3 and luminosityclasses I-V as per MK classification. The observations were carried outwith 1.2 meter Gurushikhar Infrared Telescope (GIRT), at Mt. Abu, Indiausing a NICMOS3 HgCdTe 256 x 256 NIR array based spectrometer. Thespectra have a moderate resolution of 1000 (about 16 A) at the H bandand have been continuum shape corrected to their respective effectivetemperatures. This library and the remaining ones in J and K bands oncereleased will serve as an important database for stellar populationsynthesis and other applications in conjunction with the newly formedlarge optical coude feed stellar spectral library of Valdes et al.(2004). The complete H-Band library is available online at: http://vo.iucaa.ernet.in/~voi/NIR_Header.html The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar SpectraWe have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http. Synthetic Lick Indices and Detection of α-enhanced Stars. II. F, G, and K Stars in the -1.0 < [Fe/H] < +0.50 RangeWe present an analysis of 402 F, G, and K solar neighborhood stars, withaccurate estimates of [Fe/H] in the range -1.0 to +0.5 dex, aimed at thedetection of α-enhanced stars and at the investigation of theirkinematical properties. The analysis is based on the comparison of 571sets of spectral indices in the Lick/IDS system, coming from fourdifferent observational data sets, with synthetic indices computed withsolar-scaled abundances and with α-element enhancement. We useselected combinations of indices to single out α-enhanced starswithout requiring previous knowledge of their main atmosphericparameters. By applying this approach to the total data set, we obtain alist of 60 bona fide α-enhanced stars and of 146 stars withsolar-scaled abundances. The properties of the detected α-enhancedand solar-scaled abundance stars with respect to their [Fe/H] values andkinematics are presented. A clear kinematic distinction betweensolar-scaled and α-enhanced stars was found, although a one-to-onecorrespondence to thin disk'' and thick disk'' components cannot besupported with the present data. Stellar Chemical Signatures and Hierarchical Galaxy FormationTo compare the chemistries of stars in the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal(dSph) satellite galaxies with stars in the Galaxy, we have compiled alarge sample of Galactic stellar abundances from the literature. Whenkinematic information is available, we have assigned the stars tostandard Galactic components through Bayesian classification based onGaussian velocity ellipsoids. As found in previous studies, the[α/Fe] ratios of most stars in the dSph galaxies are generallylower than similar metallicity Galactic stars in this extended sample.Our kinematically selected stars confirm this for the Galactic halo,thin-disk, and thick-disk components. There is marginal overlap in thelow [α/Fe] ratios between dSph stars and Galactic halo stars onextreme retrograde orbits (V<-420 km s-1), but this is notsupported by other element ratios. Other element ratios compared in thispaper include r- and s-process abundances, where we find a significantoffset in the [Y/Fe] ratios, which results in a large overabundance in[Ba/Y] in most dSph stars compared with Galactic stars. Thus, thechemical signatures of most of the dSph stars are distinct from thestars in each of the kinematic components of the Galaxy. This resultrules out continuous merging of low-mass galaxies similar to these dSphsatellites during the formation of the Galaxy. However, we do not ruleout very early merging of low-mass dwarf galaxies, since up to one-halfof the most metal-poor stars ([Fe/H]<=-1.8) have chemistries that arein fair agreement with Galactic halo stars. We also do not rule outmerging with higher mass galaxies, although we note that the LMC and theremnants of the Sgr dwarf galaxy are also chemically distinct from themajority of the Galactic halo stars. Formation of the Galaxy's thickdisk by heating of an old thin disk during a merger is also not ruledout; however, the Galaxy's thick disk itself cannot be comprised of theremnants from a low-mass (dSph) dwarf galaxy, nor of a high-mass dwarfgalaxy like the LMC or Sgr, because of differences in chemistry.The new and independent environments offered by the dSph galaxies alsoallow us to examine fundamental assumptions related to thenucleosynthesis of the elements. The metal-poor stars ([Fe/H]<=-1.8)in the dSph galaxies appear to have lower [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] than[Mg/Fe] ratios, unlike similar metallicity stars in the Galaxy.Predictions from the α-process (α-rich freeze-out) would beconsistent with this result if there have been a lack of hypernovae indSph galaxies. The α-process could also be responsible for thevery low Y abundances in the metal-poor stars in dSph's; since [La/Eu](and possibly [Ba/Eu]) are consistent with pure r-process results, thelow [Y/Eu] suggests a separate r-process site for this light(first-peak) r-process element. We also discuss SNe II rates and yieldsas other alternatives, however. In stars with higher metallicities([Fe/H]>=-1.8), contributions from the s-process are expected; [(Y,La, and Ba)/Eu] all rise as expected, and yet [Ba/Y] is still muchhigher in the dSph stars than similar metallicity Galactic stars. Thisresult is consistent with s-process contributions from lower metallicityAGB stars in dSph galaxies, and is in good agreement with the slowerchemical evolution expected in the low-mass dSph galaxies relative tothe Galaxy, such that the build-up of metals occurs over much longertimescales. Future investigations of nucleosynthetic constraints (aswell as galaxy formation and evolution) will require an examination ofmany stars within individual dwarf galaxies.Finally, the Na-Ni trend reported in 1997 by Nissen & Schuster isconfirmed in Galactic halo stars, but we discuss this in terms of thegeneral nucleosynthesis of neutron-rich elements. We do not confirm thatthe Na-Ni trend is related to the accretion of dSph galaxies in theGalactic halo. Empirically Constrained Color-Temperature Relations. II. uvbyA new grid of theoretical color indices for the Strömgren uvbyphotometric system has been derived from MARCS model atmospheres and SSGsynthetic spectra for cool dwarf and giant stars having-3.0<=[Fe/H]<=+0.5 and 3000<=Teff<=8000 K. Atwarmer temperatures (i.e., 8000-2.0. To overcome thisproblem, the theoretical indices at intermediate and high metallicitieshave been corrected using a set of color calibrations based on fieldstars having well-determined distances from Hipparcos, accurateTeff estimates from the infrared flux method, andspectroscopic [Fe/H] values. In contrast with Paper I, star clustersplayed only a minor role in this analysis in that they provided asupplementary constraint on the color corrections for cool dwarf starswith Teff<=5500 K. They were mainly used to test thecolor-Teff relations and, encouragingly, isochrones thatemploy the transformations derived in this study are able to reproducethe observed CMDs (involving u-v, v-b, and b-y colors) for a number ofopen and globular clusters (including M67, the Hyades, and 47 Tuc)rather well. Moreover, our interpretations of such data are verysimilar, if not identical, with those given in Paper I from aconsideration of BV(RI)C observations for the sameclusters-which provides a compelling argument in support of thecolor-Teff relations that are reported in both studies. Inthe present investigation, we have also analyzed the observedStrömgren photometry for the classic Population II subdwarfs,compared our final'' (b-y)-Teff relationship with thosederived empirically in a number of recent studies and examined in somedetail the dependence of the m1 index on [Fe/H].Based, in part, on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope,operated jointly on the island of La Palma by Denmark, Finland, Iceland,Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de losMuchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.Based, in part, on observations obtained with the Danish 1.54 mtelescope at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of 14 000 F and G dwarfsWe present and discuss new determinations of metallicity, rotation, age,kinematics, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, andkinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our63 000 new, accurate radial-velocity observations for nearly 13 500stars allow identification of most of the binary stars in the sampleand, together with published uvbyβ photometry, Hipparcosparallaxes, Tycho-2 proper motions, and a few earlier radial velocities,complete the kinematic information for 14 139 stars. These high-qualityvelocity data are supplemented by effective temperatures andmetallicities newly derived from recent and/or revised calibrations. Theremaining stars either lack Hipparcos data or have fast rotation. Amajor effort has been devoted to the determination of new isochrone agesfor all stars for which this is possible. Particular attention has beengiven to a realistic treatment of statistical biases and errorestimates, as standard techniques tend to underestimate these effectsand introduce spurious features in the age distributions. Our ages agreewell with those by Edvardsson et al. (\cite{edv93}), despite severalastrophysical and computational improvements since then. We demonstrate,however, how strong observational and theoretical biases cause thedistribution of the observed ages to be very different from that of thetrue age distribution of the sample. Among the many basic relations ofthe Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from the data presentedhere, we revisit the metallicity distribution of the G dwarfs and theage-metallicity, age-velocity, and metallicity-velocity relations of theSolar neighbourhood. Our first results confirm the lack of metal-poor Gdwarfs relative to closed-box model predictions (the G dwarfproblem''), the existence of radial metallicity gradients in the disk,the small change in mean metallicity of the thin disk since itsformation and the substantial scatter in metallicity at all ages, andthe continuing kinematic heating of the thin disk with an efficiencyconsistent with that expected for a combination of spiral arms and giantmolecular clouds. Distinct features in the distribution of the Vcomponent of the space motion are extended in age and metallicity,corresponding to the effects of stochastic spiral waves rather thanclassical moving groups, and may complicate the identification ofthick-disk stars from kinematic criteria. More advanced analyses of thisrich material will require careful simulations of the selection criteriafor the sample and the distribution of observational errors.Based on observations made with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, LaSilla, Chile, and with the Swiss 1-m telescope at Observatoire deHaute-Provence, France.Complete Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/989 Improved Astrometry and Photometry for the Luyten Catalog. II. Faint Stars and the Revised CatalogWe complete construction of a catalog containing improved astrometry andnew optical/infrared photometry for the vast majority of NLTT starslying in the overlap of regions covered by POSS I and by the secondincremental Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) release, approximately 44%of the sky. The epoch 2000 positions are typically accurate to 130 mas,the proper motions to 5.5 mas yr-1, and the V-J colors to0.25 mag. Relative proper motions of binary components are measured to 3mas yr-1. The false-identification rate is ~1% for11<~V<~18 and substantially less at brighter magnitudes. Theseimprovements permit the construction of a reduced proper-motion diagramthat, for the first time, allows one to classify NLTT stars intomain-sequence (MS) stars, subdwarfs (SDs), and white dwarfs (WDs). We inturn use this diagram to analyze the properties of both our catalog andthe NLTT catalog on which it is based. In sharp contrast to popularbelief, we find that NLTT incompleteness in the plane is almostcompletely concentrated in MS stars, and that SDs and WDs are detectedalmost uniformly over the sky δ>-33deg. Our catalogwill therefore provide a powerful tool to probe these populationsstatistically, as well as to reliably identify individual SDs and WDs. High-Precision Near-Infrared Photometry of a Large Sample of Bright Stars Visible from the Northern HemisphereWe present the results of 8 yr of infrared photometric monitoring of alarge sample of stars visible from Teide Observatory (Tenerife, CanaryIslands). The final archive is made up of 10,949 photometric measuresthrough a standard InSb single-channel photometer system, principally inJHK, although some stars have measures in L'. The core of this list ofstars is the standard-star list developed for the Carlos SánchezTelescope. A total of 298 stars have been observed on at least twooccasions on a system carefully linked to the zero point defined byVega. We present high-precision photometry for these stars. The medianuncertainty in magnitude for stars with a minimum of four observationsand thus reliable statistics ranges from 0.0038 mag in J to 0.0033 magin K. Many of these stars are faint enough to be observable with arraydetectors (42 are K>8) and thus to permit a linkage of the bright andfaint infrared photometric systems. We also present photometry of anadditional 25 stars for which the original measures are no longeravailable, plus photometry in L' and/or M of 36 stars from the mainlist. We calculate the mean infrared colors of main-sequence stars fromA0 V to K5 V and show that the locus of the H-K color is linearlycorrelated with J-H. The rms dispersion in the correlation between J-Hand H-K is 0.0073 mag. We use the relationship to interpolate colors forall subclasses from A0 V to K5 V. We find that K and M main-sequence andgiant stars can be separated on the color-color diagram withhigh-precision near-infrared photometry and thus that photometry canallow us to identify potential mistakes in luminosity classclassification. Statistical cataloging of archival data for luminosity class IV-V stars. II. The epoch 2001 [Fe/H] catalogThis paper describes the derivation of an updated statistical catalog ofmetallicities. The stars for which those metallicities apply are ofspectral types F, G, and K, and are on or near the main sequence. Theinput data for the catalog are values of [Fe/H] published before 2002February and derived from lines of weak and moderate strength. Theanalyses used to derive the data have been based on one-dimensional LTEmodel atmospheres. Initial adjustments which are applied to the datainclude corrections to a uniform temperature scale which is given in acompanion paper (see Taylor \cite{t02}). After correction, the data aresubjected to a statistical analysis. For each of 941 stars considered,the results of that analysis include a mean value of [Fe/H], an rmserror, an associated number of degrees of freedom, and one or moreidentification numbers for source papers. The catalog of these resultssupersedes an earlier version given by Taylor (\cite{t94b}).Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/398/731 Statistical cataloging of archival data for luminosity class IV-V stars. I. The epoch 2001 temperature catalogThis paper is one of a pair in which temperatures and metallicitycatalogs for class IV-V stars are considered. The temperature catalogdescribed here is derived from a calibration based on stellar angulardiameters. If published calibrations of this kind are compared by usingcolor-index transformations, temperature-dependent differences among thecalibrations are commonly found. However, such differences are minimizedif attention is restricted to calibrations based on Johnson V-K. Acalibration of this sort from Di Benedetto (\cite{dib98}) is thereforetested and adopted. That calibration is then applied to spectroscopicand photometric data, with the latter predominating. Cousins R-Iphotometry receives special attention because of its high precision andlow metallicity sensitivity. Testing of temperatures derived from thecalibration suggests that their accuracy and precision are satisfactory,though further testing will be warranted as new results appear. Thesetemperatures appear in the catalog as values of theta equiv5040/T(effective). Most of these entries are accompanied by measured orderived values of Cousins R-I. Entries are given for 951 stars.Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/398/721 Post-T Tauri Stars in the Nearest OB AssociationWe present results of a spectroscopic survey of X-ray- andproper-motion-selected samples of late-type stars in the LowerCentaurus-Crux (LCC) and Upper Centaurus-Lupus (UCL) subgroups of thenearest OB association: Scorpius-Centaurus. The primary goals of thesurvey are to determine the star formation history of the OB subgroupsand to assess the frequency of accreting stars in a sample dominated bypost-T Tauri'' pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars. We investigate twosamples: (1) proper-motion candidates from the ACT Catalog and TychoReference Catalog (TRC) with X-ray counterparts in the ROSAT All-SkySurvey (RASS) Bright Source Catalog and (2) G- and K-type stars in theHipparcos catalog found to be candidate members by de Zeeuw et al. Weobtained optical spectra of 130 candidates with the Siding Spring 2.3 mdual-beam spectrograph. PMS stars were identified by (1) strong Liλ6707 absorption, (2) subgiant surface gravities, (3) propermotions consistent with Sco-Cen membership, and (4) H-R diagrampositions consistent with being PMS. We find 93% of the RASS-ACT/TRCstars to be probable PMS members, compared with 73% of the Hipparcoscandidates. We demonstrate that measuring the gravity-sensitive bandratio of Sr II λ4077 to Fe I λ4071 is a valuable means ofdiscriminating PMS and zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) stars. Usingsecular parallaxes and Hipparcos, Tycho-2, and Two Micron All Sky Surveyphotometry, we construct an H-R diagram. Depending on the choice ofpublished evolutionary tracks, we find the mean ages of the PMSpopulations to range between 17 and 23 Myr for LCC and 15 and 22 Myr forUCL. Taking into account observational errors, it appears that 95% ofthe low-mass star formation in each subgroup must have occurred in lessthan 8 Myr (LCC) and 12 Myr (UCL). Using the Bertelli et al. tracks, wefind main-sequence turnoff ages for Hipparcos B-type members to be16+/-1 Myr for LCC and 17+/-1 Myr for UCL. Contrary to previousfindings, it appears that LCC is coeval with, or slightly older than,UCL. The secular parallaxes of the Sco-Cen PMS stars yield distances of85-215 pc, with 12 of the LCC members lying within 100 pc of the Sun.Only one out of 110 (0.9+2.1-0.8%; 1 σ) PMSsolar-type stars in the sample with ages of 13+/-1 (s.e.)+/-6 (1σ) Myr and masses of 1.3+/-0.2 (1 σ) Msolar showsboth enhanced Hα emission and a K-band excess indicative ofaccretion from a truncated circumstellar disk: the nearby (d~=86 pc)classical T Tauri star PDS 66. The Nuclear Stellar Cluster in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 3227: High Angular Resolution Near-Infrared Imaging and SpectroscopyNear-infrared (NIR) high angular resolution speckle imaging and imagingspectroscopy of the nuclear region (~10''~840 pc) of theSeyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3227 are presented. The images reveal an unresolvednuclear source in the K band in addition to a nuclear stellar clusterthat is slightly resolved in the J and H bands. The contribution of thisstellar cluster to the NIR continuum is increasing from the K to the Jbands. The stellar absorption lines are extended compared to theneighboring continuum suggesting a nuclear stellar cluster size of ~70pc FWHM. Analysis of the stellar absorption lines suggests that thestars are contributing about 65% (40%) of the total continuum emissionin the H (K) band in a 3.6" aperture. The dominant stellar type is coolM-type stars. Population synthesis in conjunction with NIR spectralsynthesis indicates that the age of the mapped nuclear stellar clusteris in the range of 25-50 Myr when red supergiants contribute most to theNIR light. This is supported by published optical data on the Mg I bline and the Ca II triplet. Although a higher age of ~0.5 Gyr whereasymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars dominate the NIR light cannot beexcluded, the observed parameters are at the limit of those expected fora cluster dominated by AGB stars. However, in either case the resolvedstellar cluster contributes only about ~15% of the total dynamical massin the inner 300 pc. This immediately implies at least one other mucholder stellar population that contributes to the mass but not the NIRluminosity. Pure constant star formation over the last 10 Gyr can beexcluded based on the observational fact that in such a scenario thetotal observed (spatially unresolved and spectrally resolved) Brγflux would be of stellar origin that is spatially extended. Therefore,at least two star formation/starburst events took place in the nucleusof NGC 3227. Since such sequences in the nuclear star formation historyare also observed in the nuclei of other galaxies a link between theactivity of the star formation and the AGN itself seems likely. Groundbased investigation of asteroid 9969 Braille, target of the spacecraft mission Deep Space 1Asteroid 9969 Braille (1992 KD) was encountered on July 29, 1999 by theDeep Space 1 mission, the first of NASA's New Millennium Program,launched on October 24 1998. The data obtained by the space mission seemto indicate a composition of the object similar to that of Vesta. Tocomplete the information obtained in the infrared region by the DeepSpace 1 mission we have performed a visible spectroscopic andphotometric investigation of the asteroid respectively with the 1.5 mtelescope and the NTT of ESO, La Silla. The spectrum was obtained in thespectral range 4500-8200 Å and, for the photometry, BVRI filterswere used. In this paper we report the results of the analysis of thedata obtained indicating that, on the basis of our visible data, thecomposition of the asteroid may range from V-type to Q-type, but weobserve also a strong similarity to the H-type ordinary chondrites.Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory(ESO) of La Silla, Chile, programs N.62S-0173 and N.62S-0305A. Solar Analogs: Spectral Energy Distributions and Physical Parameters of Their AtmospheresThe angular diameters, radii, and effective temperatures of 16 G0 G5main-sequence stars with color excesses 0.60≤B-V≤0.68 andparallaxes derived from Hipparcos data have been determined using theirinfrared fluxes, obtained from JHKLM photometric observations. For allthe stars except BS 483, these effective temperatures differ from thespectroscopic temperatures by no more than 1 2%. Such differences arewithin the uncertainties expected for the IR-flux method. The effectivetemperatures of BS 483 derived from its infrared fluxes are 3% higherthan those indicated by spectroscopic observations; this may be due tothe specific atmospheric structure of this star. Spectroscopicobservations at 3400 7500 Å and JHKLM photometric observations arecompared with analogous solar data and Kurucz models. The best agreementwith the model with T eff=5750 K and logg=4.5 in the interval 4400 7500Å was obtained for BS 7503 and BS 7504 (16 Cyg A and 16 Cyg B).The infrared color indices H-K, K-L, and K-M for these stars differ fromthe corresponding solar indices, and their angular diameters grow withwavelength, which is not the case for the Sun. H-K for BS 6060,currently considered to be the closest analog to the Sun, is near thesolar value. The vast majority of the stars studied (13 of 16) havehigher luminosities than the Sun. These include 16 Cyg A, 16 Cyg B, and51 Peg, which thus cannot be considered full “twins” of theSun. The Near-Ultraviolet Continuum of Late-Type StarsAnalyses of the near-ultraviolet continuum of late-type stars have ledto controversial results regarding the performance of state-of-the-artmodel atmospheres. The release of the homogeneous InternationalUltraviolet Explorer (IUE) final archive and the availability of thehigh-accuracy Hipparcos parallaxes provide an opportunity to revisitthis issue, as accurate stellar distances make it possible to compareobserved absolute fluxes with the predictions of model atmospheres. Thenear-UV continuum is highly sensitive to Teff and [Fe/H], andonce the gravity is constrained from the parallax, these parameters maybe derived from the analysis of low-dispersion, long-wavelength(2000-3000 Å) IUE spectra for stars previously studied by Alonso,Arribas, & Martínez-Roger using the Infrared Flux Method(IRFM). A second comparison is carried out against the starsspectroscopically investigated by Gratton, Carretta, & Castelli. Itis shown that there is a good agreement between Teff valuesobtained from the IRFM and those from the near-UV continuum, and aremarkable correspondence between observed and synthetic fluxes forstars with 4000 K<=Teff<=6000 K of any metallicity andgravity. These facts suggest that model atmospheres provide an adequatedescription of the near-UV continuum forming region and that theopacities involved are essentially understood. Lithium and rotation on the subgiant branch. II. Theoretical analysis of observationsLithium abundances and rotation, determined for 120 subgiant stars inLèbre et al. (1999) are analyzed. To this purpose, theevolutionary status of the sample as well as the individual masses havebeen determined using the HIPPARCOS trigonometric parallax measurementsto locate very precisely our sample stars in the HR diagram. We look atthe distributions of A_Li and Vsini with mass when stars evolve from themain sequence to the subgiant branch. For most of the stars in oursample we find good agreement with the dilution predictions. However,the more massive cool stars with upper limits of Li abundances show asignificant discrepancy with the theoretical predictions, even if theNon-LTE effects are taken into account. For the rotation behaviour, ouranalysis confirms that low mass stars leave the main sequence with a lowrotational rate, while more massive stars are slowed down only whenreaching the subgiant branch. We also checked the connection between theobserved rotation behaviour and the magnetic braking due to thedeepening of the convective envelope. Our results shed new light on thelithium and rotation discontinuities in the evolved phase. A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved starsRotational and radial velocities have been measured for about 2000evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II and Ib covering thespectral region F, G and K. The survey was carried out with the CORAVELspectrometer. The precision for the radial velocities is better than0.30 km s-1, whereas for the rotational velocity measurementsthe uncertainties are typically 1.0 km s-1 for subgiants andgiants and 2.0 km s-1 for class II giants and Ib supergiants.These data will add constraints to studies of the rotational behaviourof evolved stars as well as solid informations concerning the presenceof external rotational brakes, tidal interactions in evolved binarysystems and on the link between rotation, chemical abundance and stellaractivity. In this paper we present the rotational velocity v sin i andthe mean radial velocity for the stars of luminosity classes IV, III andII. Based on observations collected at the Haute--Provence Observatory,Saint--Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. Table \ref{tab5} also available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The effective temperature scale of giant stars (F0-K5). I. The effective temperature determination by means of the IRFMWe have applied the InfraRed Flux Method (IRFM) to a sample ofapproximately 500 giant stars in order to derive their effectivetemperatures with an internal mean accuracy of about 1.5% and a maximumuncertainty in the zero point of the order of 0.9%. For the applicationof the IRFM, we have used a homogeneous grid of theoretical modelatmosphere flux distributions developed by \cite[Kurucz (1993)]{K93}.The atmospheric parameters of the stars roughly cover the ranges: 3500 K<= T_eff <= 8000 K; -3.0 <= [Fe/H] <= +0.5; 0.5 <= log(g) <= 3.5. The monochromatic infrared fluxes at the continuum arebased on recent photometry with errors that satisfy the accuracyrequirements of the work. We have derived the bolometric correction ofgiant stars by using a new calibration which takes the effect ofmetallicity into account. Direct spectroscopic determinations ofmetallicity have been adopted where available, although estimates basedon photometric calibrations have been considered for some stars lackingspectroscopic ones. The adopted infrared absolute flux calibration,based on direct optical measurements of stellar angular diameters, putsthe effective temperatures determined in this work in the same scale asthose obtained by direct methods. We have derived up to fourtemperatures, TJ, TH, TK and T_{L'},for each star using the monochromatic fluxes at different infraredwavelengths in the photometric bands J, H, K and L'. They show goodconsistency over 4000 K, and there is no appreciable trend withwavelength, metallicity and/or temperature. We provide a detaileddescription of the steps followed for the application of the IRFM, aswell as the sources of error and their effect on final temperatures. Wealso provide a comparison of the results with previous work. Empirical calibration of the lambda 4000 Å breakEmpirical fitting functions, describing the behaviour of the lambda 4000Ä break, D4000, in terms of effective temperature,metallicity and surface gravity, are presented. For this purpose, thebreak has been measured in 392 stars from the Lick/IDS Library. We havefollowed a very detailed error treatment in the reduction and fittingprocedures, allowing for a reliable estimation of the breakuncertainties. This calibration can be easily incorporated into stellarpopulation models to provide accurate predictions of the break amplitudefor, relatively old, composite systems. Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Spectroscopic comparison of aqueous altered asteroids with CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteoritesIn the last year we have started a spectroscopic investigation ofasteroids located in the region of the main-belt between about 2.2 and3.6 AU. The aim of this work is to study the aqueous alteration processwhich acted in that zone, dominated by low albedo C-type asteroids, andto compare the spectra of these hydrous objects with those of CM2carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. In fact, the spectra of thesemeteorites reveal features probably due to aqueous altered materials ontheir surfaces. The study of the aqueous alteration process can giveimportant information on the chemical and thermal evolution of theearliest Solar System. More that 65% of the investigated objects haverevealed features suggesting the presence of hydrous materials. Thecomparison of the spectra of the hydrated asteroids obtained to datewith those of several CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites seems toindicate that aqueous altered asteroids could be the parents of CM2meteorites. The data have been obtained during several observationalruns at the Asiago Observatory with the 1.8 m telescope and atESO-LaSilla with the 1.5 m telescope. Based on observations carried outat the European Southern Observatory (ESO), La Silla, Chile, and at theAsiago Observatory, Italy. 4979 Otawara: flyby target of the Rosetta missionAn international observing campaign was organized to determine thephysical and chemical characteristics of asteroid 4979 Otawara, which isthe first target of the Rosetta mission (flyby on July 10, 2006).Knowledge of the physical parameters of the flyby targets is requiredfor both refinement of the design of the spacecraft and the instrumentpayload, and optimization of the mission trajectory and scenarios. Wepresent the results of observations obtained from December, 1998 throughMarch, 1999. The spectral classification of 4979 Otawara could be eithera pyroxene and/or olivine-rich S-type asteroid or a V-type asteroid, amember of the Vesta dynamical family. Further observations are needed inorder to discriminate between the two spectral types. The synodicrotation period of Otawara is Psyn = 2.707 +/- 0.005 hr. Thelower limit for the axial ratio of the enveloping ellipsoid is a/b >=1.3. The circular effective radius is 2.0 or 1.3 km in the case of anS-type or a V-type asteroid, respectively. A lower limit on its densityis obtained: rho min >= 1.9 g cm-3 if we assumethat Otawara is an aggregate or rubble pile object. However, if Otawarais a single solid body, no constraint can be set on its density. 4979Otawara is a small, fast rotating asteroid (FRA) and hence, will be aparticularly interesting target to be studied from a spacecraft, sinceno fast rotator has been visited yet. partly based on observationscarried out at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) of La Silla,Chile, and at Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZUSA. Lithium and rotation on the subgiant branch. I. Observations and spectral analysisWe have obtained new high resolution spectroscopic observations of thelithium line at 6707.81 Angstroms and derived lithium abundances (A_Li )by spectral synthesis for a sample of about 120 F-, G- and K-typePopulation I subgiant stars. For each of these stars, high precisionrotational velocity obtained with the CORAVEL spectrometer is available.We present the behavior of the lithium abundance as a function ofeffective temperature, which shows a sort of discontinuity around 5600K, somewhat later than the well known rotational discontinuity. based onobservations collected at the Observatoire de Haute--Provence (France)and at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla (Chile). IRAS F10214+4724: the inner 100pcWe use new high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy and our previouslypublished optical spectroscopy of the gravitationally lensed Seyfert 2galaxy F10214+4724 to study both the links between the starburst and AGNin this object and the properties of the line-emitting clouds in theinner narrow-line region. Close inspection of the rest frame UV spectrumreveals interstellar or stellar absorption features consistent with acompact, moderately reddened starburst providing about half the UVlight, and explaining the dilution of the UV continuum polarizationrelative to the broad emission lines. Spectroscopy of the Hα/[Nii]line blend has enabled us to assess the relative contributions of theemission from the narrow-line region of the Seyfert 2, and a moderatelyreddened emission-line region which we argue is associated with thestarburst activity. Estimates of the star formation rate from theunpolarized UV continuum flux and the Hα flux are consistent towithin their associated uncertainties. We find we can plausibly explainthe unusual emission-line properties of F10214+4724 in terms ofconventional models for nearby Seyfert 2 galaxies if lensing ispreferentially magnifying the side of the inner narrow-line regionbetween the AGN and the observer, and the other side is both lessmagnified and partially obscured by the torus. The hydrogen densities ofclouds in this region are high enough to make the Balmer lines opticallythick and to suppress forbidden emission lines with low criticaldensities. From the emission-line spectrum we have deduced the columndensity of both ionized and neutral gas in the narrow-line clouds, andthe density of the ionized gas. Using these we have been able toestimate the mass of the inner narrow-line clouds to be ~1M, and showthat the gas:dust ratio N_H/E(B-V) in these clouds must be~1.3x10^27m^-2mag^-1, significantly higher than the average value in theMilky Way, ~4.5x10^25m^-2mag^-1. The column density and low dust contentof a typical cloud are consistent with the properties of the warmabsorbers seen in the X-ray spectra of Seyfert 1 galaxies. Our resultsthus favour models in which the narrow-line clouds start life close tothe nucleus and flow out. An emission line from the lensing system hasallowed us to confirm its redshift as z~0.9. Broad-band JHK(L') photometry of a sample of giants with 0.5 > [Fe/H] > -3We present the results of a three-year campaign of broad-band photometryin the near-infrared J, H, K and L' bands for a sample of approximately250 giant stars carried out at the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife,Spain). Transformations of the Telescopio Carlos Sanchez systeminto/from several currently used infrared systems are extended to theredward part of the colour axis. The linearity of our photometric systemin the range -3 mag [Fe/H] >-3. Data of comparable quality previouslypublished have been added to the sample in order to increase thereliability of the relations to be obtained. We also provide mean IRcolours for giant stars according to spectral type.ables 1, 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form via the CDS(anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Determination of the temperatures of selected ISO flux calibration stars using the Infrared Flux MethodEffective temperatures for 420 stars with spectral types between A0 andK3, and luminosity classes between II and V, selected for a fluxcalibration of the Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, have been determinedusing the Infrared Flux Method (IRFM). The determinations are based onnarrow and wide band photometric data obtained for this purpose, andtake into account previously published narrow-band measures oftemperature. Regression coefficients are given for relations between thedetermined temperatures and the photometric parameters (B2-V1), (b-y)and (B-V), corrected for interstellar extinction through use ofHipparcos parallaxes. A correction for the effect of metallicity on thedetermination of integrated flux is proposed. The importance of aknowledge of metallicity in the representation of derived temperaturesfor Class V, IV and III stars by empirical functions is discussed andformulae given. An estimate is given for the probable error of eachtemperature determination. Based on data from the ESA HipparcosAstrometry Satellite. Towards a fundamental calibration of stellar parameters of A, F, G, K dwarfs and giantsI report on the implementation of the empirical surface brightnesstechnique using the near-infrared Johnson broadband { (V-K)} colour assuitable sampling observable aimed at providing accurate effectivetemperatures of 537 dwarfs and giants of A-F-G-K spectral-type selectedfor a flux calibration of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Thesurface brightness-colour correlation is carefully calibrated using aset of high-precision angular diameters measured by moderninterferometry techniques. The stellar sizes predicted by thiscorrelation are then combined with the bolometric flux measurementsavailable for a subset of 327 ISO standard stars in order to determineone-dimensional { (T, V-K)} temperature scales of dwarfs and giants. Theresulting very tight relationships show an intrinsic scatter induced byobservational photometry and bolometric flux measurements well below thetarget accuracy of +/- 1 % required for temperature determinations ofthe ISO standards. Major improvements related to the actual directcalibration are the high-precision broadband { K} magnitudes obtainedfor this purpose and the use of Hipparcos parallaxes for dereddeningphotometric data. The temperature scale of F-G-K dwarfs shows thesmallest random errors closely consistent with those affecting theobservational photometry alone, indicating a negligible contributionfrom the component due to the bolometric flux measurements despite thewide range in metallicity for these stars. A more detailed analysisusing a subset of selected dwarfs with large metallicity gradientsstrongly supports the actual bolometric fluxes as being practicallyunaffected by the metallicity of field stars, in contrast with recentresults claiming somewhat significant effects. The temperature scale ofF-G-K giants is affected by random errors much larger than those ofdwarfs, indicating that most of the relevant component of the scattercomes from the bolometric flux measurements. Since the giants have smallmetallicities, only gravity effects become likely responsible for theincreased level of scatter. The empirical stellar temperatures withsmall model-dependent corrections are compared with the semiempiricaldata by the Infrared Flux Method (IRFM) using the large sample of 327comparison stars. One major achievement is that all empirical andsemiempirical temperature estimates of F-G-K giants and dwarfs are foundto be closely consistent between each other to within +/- 1 %. However,there is also evidence for somewhat significant differential effects.These include an average systematic shift of (2.33 +/- 0.13) % affectingthe A-type stars, the semiempirical estimates being too low by thisamount, and an additional component of scatter as significant as +/- 1 %affecting all the comparison stars. The systematic effect confirms theresults from other investigations and indicates that previousdiscrepancies in applying the IRFM to A-type stars are not yet removedby using new LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres along with the updatedabsolute flux calibration, whereas the additional random component isfound to disappear in a broadband version of the IRFM using an infraredreference flux derived from wide rather than narrow band photometricdata. Table 1 and 2 are only available in the electronic form of thispaper H gamma and H delta Absorption Features in Stars and Stellar PopulationsThe H gamma and H delta absorption features are measured in a sample of455 (out of an original 460) Lick/IDS stars with pseudo--equivalentwidth indices. For each Balmer feature, two definitions, involving anarrow (~20 Angstroms) and a wide (~40 Angstroms) central bandpass, aremeasured. These four new Balmer indices augment 21 indices previouslydetermined by Worthey et al., and polynomial fitting functions that giveindex strengths as a function of stellar temperature, gravity, and[Fe/H] are provided. The new indices are folded into models for theintegrated light of stellar populations, and predictions are given forsingle-burst stellar populations of a variety of ages and metallicities.Contrary to our initial hopes, the indices cannot break a degeneracybetween burst age and burst strength in post-starburst objects, but theyare successful mean-age indicators when used with sensitive metallicityindicators. An appendix gives data, advice, and examples of how totransform new spectra to the 25-index Lick/IDS system. A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 editionA fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5), or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
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