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 Identification of a complete sample of northern ROSAT All-Sky Survey X-ray sources. VIII. The late-type stellar componentWe present results of an investigation of the X-ray properties, agedistribution, and kinematical characteristics of a high-galacticlatitude sample of late-type field stars selected from the ROSAT All-SkySurvey (RASS). The sample comprises 254 RASS sources with opticalcounterparts of spectral types F to M distributed over six study areaslocated at |b|  20 °, and Dec ≥ -9 °. A detailed studywas carried out for the subsample of ~200 G, K, and M stars. Lithiumabundances were determined for 179 G-M stars. Radial velocities weremeasured for most of the 141 G and K type stars of the sample. Combinedwith proper motions these data were used to study the age distributionand the kinematical properties of the sample. Based on the lithiumabundances half of the G-K stars were found to be younger than theHyades (660 Myr). About 25% are comparable in age to the Pleiades (100Myr). A small subsample of 10 stars is younger than the Pleiades. Theyare therefore most likely pre-main sequence stars. Kinematically the PMSand Pleiades-type stars appear to form a group with space velocitiesclose to the Castor moving group but clearly distinct from the LocalAssociation.Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish AstronomicalCentre, Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut fürAstronomie, Heidelberg, jointly with the Spanish National Commission forAstronomy, and at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.Tables A2-A4 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsWe present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773 Determination of fundamental characteristics for stars of the F, G, and K spectral types. The surface gravities and metallicity parameters.Not Available A Spectral Atlas of F and G StarsWe present an atlas of a group of bright stars in the range of spectralclasses F--G and luminosity classes I--V. The spectra were obtainedwith spectral resolution R  15,000 within spectral region4500--6620 Å. Typical spectra of stars with different metallicity[Fe/H] are included. We also show the digital version of the spectraldata in FITS format. The Nuclear Gas Dynamics and Star Formation of Markarian 231We report adaptive optics H- and K-band spectroscopy of the inner fewarcseconds of the luminous merger/ultraluminous infrared galaxy(ULIRG)/QSO Mrk 231, at spatial resolutions as small as 0.085". For thefirst time we have been able to resolve the active star-forming regionclose to the active galactic nucleus (AGN) using stellar absorptionfeatures, finding that its luminosity profile is well represented by anexponential function with a disk scale length 0.18"-0.24" (150-200 pc),and implying that the stars exist in a disk rather than a spheroid. Thestars in this region are also young (10-100 Myr), and it therefore seemslikely that they have formed in situ in the gas disk, which itselfresulted from the merger. The value of the stellar velocity dispersion(~100 km s-1 rather than the usual few times 10 kms-1 in large-scale disks) is a result of the large masssurface density of the disk. The stars in this region have a combinedmass of at least 1.6×109 Msolar, and accountfor 25%-40% of the bolometric luminosity of the entire galaxy. At ourspatial resolution the stellar light in the core is diluted by more thana factor of 10 even in the H band by continuum emission from hot dustaround the AGN. We have detected the 2.12 μm 1-0 S(1) H2and 1.64 μm [Fe II] lines out to radii exceeding 0.5". The kinematicsfor the two lines are very similar to each other as well as to thestellar kinematics, and broadly consistent with the nearly face-onrotating disk reported in the literature and based on interferometric CO1-0 and CO 2-1 measurements of the cold gas. However, they suggest amore complex situation in which the inner 0.2"-0.3" (200 pc) is warpedout of its original disk plane. Such a scenario is supported by theprojected shape of the nuclear stellar disk, the major axis of which issignificantly offset from the nominal direction, and by the pronouncedshift on very small scales in the direction of the radio jet axis, whichhas been reported in the literature.The near-infrared data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. KeckObservatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among theCalifornia Institute of Technology, the University of California, andthe National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory wasmade possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. KeckFoundation. Synthetic Lick Indices and Detection of α-enhanced Stars. II. F, G, and K Stars in the -1.0 < [Fe/H] < +0.50 RangeWe present an analysis of 402 F, G, and K solar neighborhood stars, withaccurate estimates of [Fe/H] in the range -1.0 to +0.5 dex, aimed at thedetection of α-enhanced stars and at the investigation of theirkinematical properties. The analysis is based on the comparison of 571sets of spectral indices in the Lick/IDS system, coming from fourdifferent observational data sets, with synthetic indices computed withsolar-scaled abundances and with α-element enhancement. We useselected combinations of indices to single out α-enhanced starswithout requiring previous knowledge of their main atmosphericparameters. By applying this approach to the total data set, we obtain alist of 60 bona fide α-enhanced stars and of 146 stars withsolar-scaled abundances. The properties of the detected α-enhancedand solar-scaled abundance stars with respect to their [Fe/H] values andkinematics are presented. A clear kinematic distinction betweensolar-scaled and α-enhanced stars was found, although a one-to-onecorrespondence to thin disk'' and thick disk'' components cannot besupported with the present data. Rotation and Lithium Surface Abundances, RevisitedFor giants in the Hertzsprung gap, the relations betweenTeff, vsini, and lithium surface abundances arereinvestigated and compared with the relations found for Hyadesmain-sequence F stars. For the Hyades main-sequence F stars, the vsinidecrease steeply around Teff~6450 K. At the same temperaturethe lithium surface abundances show a narrow, deep dip. For most giantsthere is also a steep decrease of vsini for Teff around 6450K. At this temperature the lithium surface abundances of the giants alsodecrease steeply and remain low for Teff<6400 K. Thechanges in rotation and Li surface abundances occur over a temperatureinterval of less than 300 K, which for a 2 Msolar giantcorresponds to an age interval of about 106 yr. Thesimultaneous steep decreases of rotation velocities and Li surfaceabundances indicate that for the giants these changes are due to thesame cause, which we suggest to be deep mixing. It then seems ratherlikely that for the Hyades main-sequence F5 V stars the decrease ofrotation and Li surface abundance is also caused by deep mixing. Wesuggest that in both cases the changes are related to the merging of thehydrogen and helium convection zones. Infrared Echelle Spectroscopy of Palomar 6 and M71We present high-resolution infrared echelle spectroscopy for theglobular clusters Palomar 6 and M71. Our mean heliocentric radialvelocity of Pal 6 is +180.6+/-3.2 km s-1 and is 20 kms-1 lower than that found by Minniti in 1995. Contrary to theprevious metallicity estimates using low-resolution spectroscopy, ourresults show that Pal 6 has an intermediate metallicity, with[Fe/H]=-1.0+/-0.1, and is slightly more metal poor than M71. Reasonablechanges in the surface temperature or the microturbulent velocity of themodel atmospheres do not affect [Fe/H] at more than +/-0.2 dex. In spiteof its high metallicity, on the basis of the spectrum of a singlecluster member the [Si/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] ratios of Pal 6 appear to beenhanced by 0.4 and 0.5 dex, respectively, suggesting that the Galacticinner halo may have experienced a very rapid chemical enrichmenthistory.Based on observations made with the Infrared Telescope Facility, whichis operated by the University of Hawaii under contract to the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration. Dynamical Mass Estimates for Five Young Massive Stellar ClustersWe have obtained high-dispersion spectra for four massive star clustersin the dwarf irregular galaxies NGC 4214 and NGC 4449, using the HIRESspectrograph on the Keck I telescope. Combining the velocity dispersionsof the clusters with structural parameters and photometry from imagestaken with the Hubble Space Telescope, we estimate mass-to-light (M/L)ratios and compare these with simple stellar population models in orderto constrain the stellar mass functions (MFs) of the clusters. For allclusters we find M/L values that are similar to or slightly higher thanfor a Kroupa MF and thereby rule out any MF that is deficient inlow-mass stars compared with a Kroupa-type MF. The four clusters havevirial masses ranging between 2.1×105 and1.5×106Msolar, half-light radii between 3.0and 5.2 pc, estimated core densities in the range 2×103to 2×105Msolarpc-3, and agesbetween 200 and 800 Myr. We also present new high-dispersionnear-infrared spectroscopy for a luminous young (~15 Myr) cluster in thenearby spiral galaxy NGC 6946, which we have previously observed withHIRES. The new measurements in the infrared agree well with previousestimates of the velocity dispersion for this cluster, yielding a massof about 1.7×106Msolar. Including animproved estimate of the reddening toward this cluster, the new datayield an M/L in excellent agreement with a Kroupa-type MF also for thiscluster. The properties of the clusters studied here are all consistentwith the clusters being young versions of the old globular clustersfound around all major galaxies.Based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operatedas a scientific partnership among the California Institute ofTechnology, the University of California, and the National Aeronauticsand Space Administration. Also based on observations with the HubbleSpace Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Empirically Constrained Color-Temperature Relations. II. uvbyA new grid of theoretical color indices for the Strömgren uvbyphotometric system has been derived from MARCS model atmospheres and SSGsynthetic spectra for cool dwarf and giant stars having-3.0<=[Fe/H]<=+0.5 and 3000<=Teff<=8000 K. Atwarmer temperatures (i.e., 8000-2.0. To overcome thisproblem, the theoretical indices at intermediate and high metallicitieshave been corrected using a set of color calibrations based on fieldstars having well-determined distances from Hipparcos, accurateTeff estimates from the infrared flux method, andspectroscopic [Fe/H] values. In contrast with Paper I, star clustersplayed only a minor role in this analysis in that they provided asupplementary constraint on the color corrections for cool dwarf starswith Teff<=5500 K. They were mainly used to test thecolor-Teff relations and, encouragingly, isochrones thatemploy the transformations derived in this study are able to reproducethe observed CMDs (involving u-v, v-b, and b-y colors) for a number ofopen and globular clusters (including M67, the Hyades, and 47 Tuc)rather well. Moreover, our interpretations of such data are verysimilar, if not identical, with those given in Paper I from aconsideration of BV(RI)C observations for the sameclusters-which provides a compelling argument in support of thecolor-Teff relations that are reported in both studies. Inthe present investigation, we have also analyzed the observedStrömgren photometry for the classic Population II subdwarfs,compared our final'' (b-y)-Teff relationship with thosederived empirically in a number of recent studies and examined in somedetail the dependence of the m1 index on [Fe/H].Based, in part, on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope,operated jointly on the island of La Palma by Denmark, Finland, Iceland,Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de losMuchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.Based, in part, on observations obtained with the Danish 1.54 mtelescope at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Observational constraints for lithium depletion before the RGBPrecise Li abundances are determined for 54 giant stars mostly evolvingacross the Hertzsprung gap. We combine these data with rotationalvelocity and with information related to the deepening of the convectivezone of the stars to analyse their link to Li dilution in the referredspectral region. A sudden decline in Li abundance paralleling the onealready established in rotation is quite clear. Following similarresults for other stellar luminosity classes and spectral regions, thereis no linear relation between Li abundance and rotation, in spite of thefact that most of the fast rotators present high Li content. The effectsof convection in driving the Li dilution is also quite clear. Stars withhigh Li content are mostly those with an undeveloped convective zone,whereas stars with a developed convective zone present clear sign of Lidilution.Based on observations collected at ESO, La Silla, Chile, and at theObservatoire de Haute Provence, France, operated by the Centre Nationalde la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). Lithium and rotation in F and G dwarfs and subgiantsLithium abundances have been determined in 127 F and G Pop I stars basedon new measurements of the equivalent width of the lambda 6707 ÅLi I line from their high resolution CCD spectra. Distances and absolutemagnitudes of these stars have been obtained from the HipparcosCatalogue and their masses and ages derived, enabling us to investigatethe behaviour of lithium as a function of these parameters. Based ontheir location on the HR diagram superposed on theoretical evolutionarytracks, the sample of the stars has been chosen to ensure that they havemore or less completed their Li depletion on the main sequence. A largespread in the Li abundances is found at any given effective temperatureespecially in the already spun down late F and early G stars. Thisspread persists even if the Li-dip'' stars that have evolved from themain sequence temperature interval 6500-6800 K are excluded. Stars inthe mass range up to 2 M/Msun when divided into threemetallicity groups show a linear correlation between Li abundance andmass, albeit with a large dispersion around it which is not fullyaccounted for by age either. The large depletions and the observedspread in Li are in contrast to the predictions of the standard stellarmodel calculations and suggest that they are aided by non-standardprocesses depending upon variables besides mass, age and metallicity.The present study was undertaken to examine, in particular, the effectsof rotation on the depletion of Li. No one-to-one correlation is foundbetween the Li abundance and the present projected rotational velocity.Instead the observed abundances seem to be dictated by the rotationalhistory of the star. However, it is noted that even this interpretationis subject to the inherent limitation in the measurement of the observedLi EQW for large rotational velocities.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/409/251 The ISO-SWS post-helium atlas of near-infrared stellar spectraWe present an atlas of near-infrared spectra (2.36 mu m-4.1 mu m) of ~300 stars at moderate resolution (lambda /delta lambda ~ 1500-2000). Thespectra were recorded using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer aboard theInfrared Space Observatory (ISO-SWS). The bulk of the observations wereperformed during a dedicated observation campaign after the liquidhelium depletion of the ISO satellite, the so-called post-heliumprogramme. This programme was aimed at extending the MK-classificationto the near-infrared. Therefore the programme covers a large range ofspectral types and luminosity classes. The 2.36 mu m-4.05 mu m region isa valuable spectral probe for both hot and cool stars. H I lines(Bracket, Pfund and Humphreys series), He I and He II lines, atomiclines and molecular lines (CO, H2O, NH, OH, SiO, HCN,C2H2, ...) are sensitive to temperature, gravityand/or the nature of the outer layers of the stellar atmosphere(outflows, hot circumstellar discs, etc.). Another objective of theprogramme was to construct a homogeneous dataset of near-infraredstellar spectra that can be used for population synthesis studies ofgalaxies. At near-infrared wavelengths these objects emit the integratedlight of all stars in the system. In this paper we present the datasetof post-helium spectra completed with observations obtained during thenominal operations of the ISO-SWS. We discuss the calibration of the SWSdata obtained after the liquid helium boil-off and the data reduction.We also give a first qualitative overview of how the spectral featuresin this wavelength range change with spectral type. The dataset isscrutinised in two papers on the quantitative classification ofnear-infrared spectra of early-type stars ({Lenorzer} et al.\cite{lenorzer:2002a}) and late-type stars (Vandenbussche et al., inprep). Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instrumentsfunded by ESA Members States (especially the PI countries France,Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. The full atlas is available inelectronic form at www.edpsciences.org Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/390/1033 Sodium enrichment of stellar atmospheres. I. Non-variable supergiants and bright giants48 supergiants and bright giants have been observed in order toinvestigate the sodium enrichment of their atmospheres and itsconnection with stellar gravity. We present the equivalent widths of the6154 Å and 6160 Å Na I lines measured from the programspectra, the results of effective temperature determinations, the NLTEsodium abundances, and the derived relation between the sodiumoverabundance and surface gravity. CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsThe Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom. Long-Term VRI Photometry of Small-Amplitude Red Variables. I. Light Curves and PeriodsWe report up to 5000 days of VRI photometry, from a robotic photometrictelescope, of 34 pulsating red giants, namely, TV Psc, EG And, Z Psc, RZAnd, 4 Ori, RX Lep, UW Lyn, η Gem, μ Gem, ψ1 Aur,V523 Mon, V614 Mon, HD 52690, Y Lyn, BC CMi, X Cnc, UX Lyn, RS Cnc, VYUMa, ST UMa, TU CVn, FS Com, SW Vir, 30 Her, α1 Her,V642 Her, R Lyr, V450 Aql, V1293 Aql, δ Sge, EU Del, V1070 Cyg, WCyg, and μ Cep, as well as a few variable comparison stars. V, R, andI variations are generally in phase. The length and density of the dataenable us to look for variations on timescales ranging from days toyears. We use both power-spectrum (Fourier) analysis and autocorrelationanalysis, as well as light-curve analysis; these three approaches arecomplementary. The variations range from regular to irregular, but inmost of the stars, we find a period in the range of 20-200 days, whichis probably due to low-order radial pulsation. In many of the stars, wealso find a period which is an order of magnitude longer. It may be dueto rotation, or it may be due to a new kind of convectively inducedoscillatory thermal mode, recently proposed by P. Wood. Absolute spectrophotometry of late-type stars.Not Available The Physical Basis of Luminosity Classification in the Late A-, F-, and Early G-Type Stars. II. Basic Parameters of Program Stars and the Role of MicroturbulencePaper I of this series presented precise MK spectral types for 372 lateA-, F-, and early G-type stars with the aim of understanding the natureof luminosity classification on the MK spectral classification systemfor this range of spectral types. In this paper, a multidimensionaldownhill simplex technique is introduced to determine the basicparameters of the program stars from fits of synthetic spectra andfluxes with observed spectra and fluxes from Strömgren uvbyphotometry. This exercise yields useful calibrations of the MK spectralclassification system but, most importantly, gives insight into thephysical nature of luminosity classification on the MK spectralclassification system. In particular, we find that in this range ofspectral types, microturbulence appears to be at least as important asgravity in determining the MK luminosity type. The Physical Basis of Luminosity Classification in the Late A-, F-, and Early G-Type Stars. I. Precise Spectral Types for 372 StarsThis is the first in a series of two papers that address the problem ofthe physical nature of luminosity classification in the late A-, F-, andearly G-type stars. In this paper, we present precise spectralclassifications of 372 stars on the MK system. For those stars in theset with Strömgren uvbyβ photometry, we derive reddenings andpresent a calibration of MK temperature types in terms of the intrinsicStrömgren (b-y)0 index. We also examine the relationshipbetween the luminosity class and the Strömgren c1 index,which measures the Balmer jump. The second paper will address thederivation of the physical parameters of these stars, and therelationships between these physical parameters and the luminosityclass. Stars classified in this paper include one new λ Bootisstar and 10 of the F- and G-type dwarfs with recently discoveredplanets. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Near-Infrared Classification Spectroscopy: J-Band Spectra of Fundamental MK StandardsWe present a catalog of J-band spectra for 88 fundamental MK standardstars observed at a resolving power of R~3000. This contribution servesas a companion atlas to the K-band spectra recently published by Wallace& Hinkle and the H-band atlas by Meyer and coworkers. We report datafrom 7400 to 9550 cm-1 (1.05-1.34 μm) for stars ofspectral types O7-M6 and luminosity classes I-V as defined in the MKsystem. In reducing these data, special care has been taken to removetime-variable telluric features of water vapor. We identify atomic andmolecular indexes that are both temperature and luminosity sensitivethat aid in the classification of stellar spectra in the J band. Inaddition to being useful in the classification of late-type stars, the Jband contains several features of interest in the study of early-typestellar photospheres. These data are available electronically foranonymous FTP in addition to being served on the World Wide Web. Rotation and lithium in single giant starsIn the present work, we study the link between rotation and lithiumabundance in giant stars of luminosity class III, on the basis of alarge sample of 309 single stars of spectral type F, G and K. We havefound a trend for a link between the discontinuity in rotation at thespectral type G0III and the behavior of lithium abundances around thesame spectral type. The present work also shows that giant starspresenting the highest lithium contents, typically stars earlier thanG0III, are those with the highest rotation rates, pointing for adependence of lithium content on rotation, as observed for otherluminosity classes. Giant stars later than G0III present, as a rule, thelowest rotation rates and lithium contents. A large spread of about fivemagnitudes in lithium abundance is observed for the slow rotators.Finally, single giant stars with masses 1.5 < M/Msun<=2.5 show a clearest trend for a correlation between rotational velocityand lithium abundance. Based on observations collected at theObservatoire de Haute -- Provence (France) and at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla (Chile). Table 2 is only available electronicallywith the On-Line publication athttp://link.springer.de/link/service/00230/ Fundamental properties of the open cluster NGC 2355NGC 2355 is an old open cluster in the outer part of the galactic disk(l=203fdg4 , b=+11fdg8 ) which has been little studied until now. Thispaper presents the first astrometric and spectroscopic investigation ofthis cluster. We have measured precise absolute proper motions from oldCarte du Ciel plates, POSS-I plates and recent CCD observations obtainedwith the Bordeaux meridian circle. The proper motion data reveal 38highly probable cluster members down to Blim = 15 mag within7' of the cluster center. We have also obtained ELODIE high resolutionspectra for 24 stars. Seventeen of them are confirmed to be members ofthe cluster on the basis of radial velocity. Eight of them are fastrotating turnoff stars for which the projected rotational velocity hasbeen determined. The spectroscopic observations have also providedestimates of the physical parameters Teff, log g, {[Fe/H]},MV of the 24 target stars. Two stragglers have beenidentified in the cluster. Combining our astrometric and spectroscopicresults with previous UBV photometry and recent JHK_s photometry fromthe 2MASS survey we have derived the fundamental properties of thecluster: metallicity, age, distance, size, spatial velocity and orbit.Based on observations made on the 193cm telescope at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory, France, and on plate digitisation at the Centre d'Analysedes Images, Paris. This publication makes use of data products from theTwo Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University ofMassachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, funded bythe National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the NationalScience Foundation. Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen Abundances of Selected Stars in the Hertzsprung GapThe iron, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen abundances for several starswhose characteristics place them in the Hertzsprung gap have beenderived from high-resolution spectra. These stars were selected based onthe fact that previous studies have shown them to have peculiar carbon,nitrogen, or lithium abundances considering their position in theHertzsprung-Russell diagram. When combined with the lithium abundancesderived by Wallerstein and coworkers, the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygenabundances indicate that the sample of stars can generally be brokeninto two categories-lower luminosity dwarfs or subgiants that areunmixed and higher luminosity mixed giants. Among the sample are twostars, HR 7606 and HR 8626, which previously have been identified byBidelman as low-velocity CH stars.'' These stars show metallicities of[Fe/H]~-0.5 and solar abundances of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Thestrength of the CH band in these stars is probably an artifact of a mildmetal deficiency and the absence of substantial mixing of CN processedmaterials to the surface of the star rather than an unusualnucleosynthetic history. Determination of the characteristics of stars of spectral types F,G,K. The effective temperatures.Not Available Library of Medium-Resolution Fiber Optic Echelle Spectra of F, G, K, and M Field Dwarfs to Giant StarsWe present a library of Penn State Fiber Optic Echelle (FOE)observations of a sample of field stars with spectral types F to M andluminosity classes V to I. The spectral coverage is from 3800 to 10000Å with a nominal resolving power of 12,000. These spectra includemany of the spectral lines most widely used as optical and near-infraredindicators of chromospheric activity such as the Balmer lines (Hαto Hepsilon), Ca II H & K, the Mg I b triplet, Na I D_1, D_2, He ID_3, and Ca II IRT lines. There are also a large number of photosphericlines, which can also be affected by chromospheric activity, andtemperature-sensitive photospheric features such as TiO bands. Thespectra have been compiled with the goal of providing a set of standardsobserved at medium resolution. We have extensively used such data forthe study of active chromosphere stars by applying a spectralsubtraction technique. However, the data set presented here can also beutilized in a wide variety of ways ranging from radial velocitytemplates to study of variable stars and stellar population synthesis.This library can also be used for spectral classification purposes anddetermination of atmospheric parameters (T_eff, logg, [Fe/H]). A digitalversion of all the fully reduced spectra is available via ftp and theWorld Wide Web (WWW) in FITS format. A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved starsRotational and radial velocities have been measured for about 2000evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II and Ib covering thespectral region F, G and K. The survey was carried out with the CORAVELspectrometer. The precision for the radial velocities is better than0.30 km s-1, whereas for the rotational velocity measurementsthe uncertainties are typically 1.0 km s-1 for subgiants andgiants and 2.0 km s-1 for class II giants and Ib supergiants.These data will add constraints to studies of the rotational behaviourof evolved stars as well as solid informations concerning the presenceof external rotational brakes, tidal interactions in evolved binarysystems and on the link between rotation, chemical abundance and stellaractivity. In this paper we present the rotational velocity v sin i andthe mean radial velocity for the stars of luminosity classes IV, III andII. Based on observations collected at the Haute--Provence Observatory,Saint--Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. Table \ref{tab5} also available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Catalogs of temperatures and [Fe/H] averages for evolved G and K starsA catalog of mean values of [Fe/H] for evolved G and K stars isdescribed. The zero point for the catalog entries has been establishedby using differential analyses. Literature sources for those entries areincluded in the catalog. The mean values are given with rms errors andnumbers of degrees of freedom, and a simple example of the use of thesestatistical data is given. For a number of the stars with entries in thecatalog, temperatures have been determined. A separate catalogcontaining those data is briefly described. Catalog only available atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Lithium abundance and massObservations of cool giants have shown that there exists a large rangein their lithium abundances even for apparently similar stars. Thedepletions are large in a majority of them, far in excess of thepredictions of the standard stellar evolution models. In order toexplore whether the large spread in Li abundances observed in giants canbe interpreted in terms of mass, moderately high resolution CCD spectraof the Li I line at 6707.8 Ä have been obtained in 65 subgiants,giants and supergiants and the lithium abundances derived. Theirabsolute magnitudes have been estimated from the Hipparcos data.Absolute magnitudes have also been determined for another 802 starswhose lithium abundances are already known from the availableliterature. All these stars have been plotted on the HR diagram andcompared with the theoretical evolutionary tracks of Bressan et al.(1993) with initial masses ranging from 1 M_sun to 9 M_sun for achemical composition typical of the solar neighbourhood: X=0.70, Y=0.28,Z=0.02. The stars of low mass of this sample, (<2M_sun), span a widerange in evolution (unmixed warm subgiants and mixed giants) andtherefore, show a correspondingly wide range of Li abundances, perhapsreminiscent of the large range in abundances observed on the mainsequence. The spread is further augmented by the effects of increasingdilution and mixing as the stars evolve to the right and up the redgiant branch. Higher mass stars show a different behaviour. Many of thegiants of masses between 2.5 and 4.0 M_sun observed in the present studyhave Li abundances close to what is predicted by the standard stellarmodels. On the other hand, there are several high mass giants (>2.5M_sun) cooler than Teff = 5000 K with Li abundances as low asthose of low mass stars of similar effective temperature. There must beparameters other than mass and evolutionary status, as implied by thestandard evolution model of a star, that control its Li abundance. Near-Infrared Classification Spectroscopy: H-Band Spectra of Fundamental MK StandardsWe present a catalog of H-band spectra for 85 stars of approximatelysolar abundance observed at a resolving power of 3000 with the KPNOMayall 4 m Fourier Transform Spectrometer. The atlas covers spectraltypes O7-M5 and luminosity classes I-V as defined in the MK system. Weidentify both atomic and molecular indices and line ratios that aretemperature and luminosity sensitive, allowing spectral classificationto be carried out in the H-band. The line ratios permit spectralclassification in the presence of continuum excess emission, which iscommonly found in pre-main-sequence or evolved stars. We demonstratethat with spectra of R = 1000 obtained at signal-to-noise ratio >50,it is possible to derive spectral types within +/-2 subclasses forlate-type stars. These data are available electronically through theAstronomical Data Center in addition to being served on the World WideWeb.
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 קבוצת-כוכבים: חץ התרוממות ימנית: 19h40m05.80s סירוב: +18Â°00'50.0" גודל גלוי: 4.37 מרחק: 145.138 פארסק תנועה נכונה: 14.7 תנועה נכונה: -19.3 B-T magnitude: 5.325 V-T magnitude: 4.458

קטלוגים וכינוים:
 שם עצם פרטי Sham   (Edit) Bayer α Sge Flamsteed 5 Sge HD 1989 HD 185758 TYCHO-2 2000 TYC 1606-2341-1 USNO-A2.0 USNO-A2 1050-14371511 BSC 1991 HR 7479 HIP HIP 96757 → הזמן עוד קטלוגים וכינוים מוזיר